a) MEANING OF COUNSELLING
Counselling is the service offered to the individual who is under going a problem and needs professional help to overcome it. The problem keeps him disturbed high strung and under tension and unless solved his development is hampered or stunted. Counseling therefore is a more specialized service requiring training in personality development and handling exceptional groups of individuals.
According to Willey and Andrew Counseling involves two individuals one skeeking help and other a professionally trained person helped solved problems to orient and direct him to words a goals. Which needs to his maximum development and growth?
Counseling services are there fore required for individuals having developmental problems because of the handicap they suffer in any area of emotional either because of hereditary factors or environment conditions.
Generally such cases are only about five to seven percent in a population and therefore counseling is required only for such a small number. As compared to guidance which is for percent of individuals. Counseling involves a lot of time for the client to unfold the problem, gain an insight in to the complex situation.
Counseling techniques involve active listening, emphatic under standing releasing the pent up feelings confronting the client and so on counseling there fore is offered to only those individuals who are under serious problem and need professional help to overcome it.
1. Guidance and Counseling for teachers parents and students Sister.Mary Wishala SND
2 Fundamental Principles of Guidance & Counselling. –R.Sharma
b) NEED OF COUNSELLING
Counselling is an integral part of an over-all programme of guidance. “Counselling is a specific process of assistance extended by an expert in an individual situation to a needy person”. This means the counseling situation arises when a needy person is face to face with and expert who makes available his assistance to the needy individual to fulfill his needs.
Need of counseling
There is an urgent need of introducing and strengthening the counseling service in the schools and colleges of our country to meet the various needs of the students administrational and the educational system.
1. To help in the total development of the student:
Along with the intellectual development proper motivation and clarification of goals and ideas to pupils in conformity with their basic potentialities and social tendencies are important total development of the student nauseates that individual differences among them are expected, accepted, understood and planned for and all types of experiences in an institution are to be so organized as to contribute to the total development of the student.
2. To help in the proper choices of courses
3. To help in the proper choices of carvers
4. To help in the students in vocational development
5. To develop readiness for choices and changes to face new challenges.
6. To minimize the mismatching between education and employment and help in the efficient use of manpower.
7. To motivate the youth for self employment.
8. To help freshers establish proper identity
Guidance and counseling service is needed to help students deal effectively with the normal developmental tasks of adolescence and face life situations boldly.
9. To identify and motivate the students form weaker sections of society.
10. To help the students in their period of turmoil and confusion.
11. To help in checking wastage and stagnation.
12. To identity and help students in need of special help.
13. There are such students as the gifted, the backward the handicapped who need special opportunities. They need special attention and opportunities.
14. To ensure the proper utilization of time spent outside the classrooms.
The manner in which student spend their non class hours clearly affects their success in achieving both academic competence and personal development of all types a positive direction to students should be provided by influencing how they can use those non class hours.
15. To help in talking problems arising out of students population explosion
16. To check migration to prevent brain drain.
17. To make up for the deficiencies of home.
18. To minimize the incidence of indiscipline.
Bargadon has mentioned the following situations where counseling in required:
1. When a pupil requires not only reliable information but also an interesting introspection of those in formations which can solve his personal difficulties.
2. When a pupil needs intelligent listener who has more experience than the pupil to whom he can recite his difficulties and through which can seek suggestions for his working plan.
3. When the counsellor has to assess those facilities which can help in resolving the pupil problems but the pupil doesn’t enjoy such an access to those facilities.
4. When the pupil has some problem but he is unaware of that problem and his development, he is to be made aware of that problem.
5. when the pupil is aware of the problem and difficulties created by the problem but he feels difficult to define it and to understand it that is, when the pupil is familiar with the presence of the problem and its nature but he is unable to face the problem due to this temporary tension and distraction.
6. When the pupil suffer the main maladjustment problem or some handicapped which is temporary and which needs careful long due diagnosis by an expert.
Majority of students lack a sense of direction, a sense of purpose and a sense of fulfillment and include in destructive activities which lead to social damage and loss. Adequate guidance and counselling facilities is the only answer to help and guide the youth to worthwhile channels and help them to realize the goals of optimum academic personal and social development.
Problems and needs in society are nothing new. But today they seen to be proliferating unprecedented rate. The unique problems in the changing family, cities in up level, conflicts in values, attitudes and moral , the new criticism about politics, economic factors the changing role of work, new pressure and demands on school and the problems of the youth all points out the needs for the counselling services. Guidance and counselling have a challenging role to play in every developing economy much more so if it is a labour surplus one.
1. Fundamentals of Guidance and Counselling- R. S. Sharma
2. Guidance and Counselling-A. K. Nayak
c) SIGNIFICANCE OF COUNSELLING AT SECONDARY LEVEL
The student life is getting complex day by day. Guidance and counselling is needed to help the students for optimum achievement and adequate adjustment in the varied life situations. Need analysis of the students in the schools shows the need of guidance and counselling services, in the education, profession, vocation, social, health, moral, personal and marital areas. It is a simple enough to say that guidance is a function of secondary education. This statement has been made over and over again.
There is a strong tendency among personnel in secondary schools to break up in to considerable array of interest groups principles, supervisors, class room teachers and counselors all join organizations and associations to which they manifest considerable interest.
Counselling is a process of assistance extended by an expert in an individual situation to needy person. According to Carl Rogers counselling is a series of direct contact with the individual which aims to offer him assistance in changing the attitudes and behaviour.
Characteristics of Adolescence
Adolescence is best defined in relation to puberty . This is period which begins with puberty and ends with the several cessation of physical growth, it emerges from the later childhood and merges into adulthood. Adolescence is a critical period in the development of personal identity
A.T.Jersild observes Adol is that span of years during which boys and girls move from childhood to adulthood mentally, emotionally, socially and physically.
Significance of Guidance At Secondary Level
To help understand on going behavior interference theory provides a frame of reference in terms of four ideas.
The first is that people behave as they do because of various attitudes, assumptions and beliefs, they have about themselves from these assertions an individual makes decision about the feasibility of various kinds of behaviour. The adequacy of his behaviour is largely a function of the validity of this assertions.
The second idea is that as an individual initiates behaviour he observes its effects. This feed back to the individual can either confirm or disconfirm his assertions –
The third idea is that when assertions are disconfirmed, tent ions result which inhibit the reappraisal of assertions.
Fourth, because of the inflexibility and rigidity resulting from tensions, the individual strives harder to confirm initial assertions.
Significance of counselling
1. Decision marking construct:- The psychological problems of adolescents can be seen as decision making problems.
2. Conflict:- These decision making problems almost always involve some conflict, either because of factour emotional ambiguities or both.
3. Assertions:- Behaviour is a result at the assumptions, beliefs, and attitudes that one his about himself , others and the world in which her lives.
4. Disconfirmations:-The effects of behaviour following decisions are feed back to the individual perceived and they confirm or disconfirm ascertain to varying degrees.
5. Tension:- When assertions are disconfirmed, tensions result.
6. Redundancy:- Tensions inhibit the ability of an individual to reexamine his assertions and attempt to confirm them and thus they cause redundant behaviour.
The general public tends to view counselling as a remedial function and emphasizes immediate goals, such as problem solution , tension reduction and the like .counselee may refer to the resolution of a particular conflict or problem situation. Counselling in its spirit and essence is generative it aims at assisting the individual to develop such that he becomes psychologically mature and is capable at realizing his potentialities optimally. The Secondary school counselling needs a meaningful, realistic, practical frame of reference constituent with the short term nature at school counselling.
1. Guidance and Counselling- A.David
2. Elementary Guidance and Counselling- Reshmi Agarwall