Friday, March 4, 2011


The personal and professional qualities of counsellors are very important in facilitating any helping relationship. A counsellor must be well equipped to assist individuals to make adjustments and live a happy and harmonious life. The adjustment can be with regard to the school and curriculum, vocation and personality. For effective counseling, the counsellor must be equipped with two kinds of data. First he must have data relating to the counsellee’s background aptitudes, achievements, interests, plans etc. Further, he must have the skill to interpret this data. Secondly, the counsellor must have information about the areas in which the counsellee may seek his assistance. These areas may be educational or personal. With these two kinds of information he assists the counsellee to match his individual patterns of potentiality with appropriate opportunity. As the process of counselling develops, both the counsellor and counsellee must arrive at a common ground. Counsellor’s who continually develop their self awareness skills are in touch with their values, thoughts and feelings. They are likely to have a clear perception of their own and their client’s needs and accurately assess both. Such awareness can help them be honest with themselves and others. They are able to be more congruent and build trust simultaneously. Counsellors who possess this type of knowledge are most likely to communicate clearly accurately.
Three other characteristics that make counsellors initially more influential are perceived expertness, attractiveness and trustworthiness. Expertness is the degree to which a counsellor is perceived as knowledge able and informed about his or her specialty. Counsellors who display certificates and diplomas in their offices are usually perceived as more credible than those who do not and as a result, are likely to be effective. Clients went to work with counsellor who appears to know profession well.
Attractiveness is function of perceived similarity between a client and counselor. Councellors can make themselves attractive by speaking in clear, simple, jargon free sentence and offering appropriate self disclosure.
1. Magnetic personality
2. Personal adjustment
3. Interpersonal relationship
4. Professional competence
5. Leadership
6. Professional dedication
7. Philosophy of life
8. Wide range of interest
Counsellors who are nonverbal cues in responding to clients, such as more nodding and eye contacts are seen as more attractive than those do not. The attire of the counsellor also make a differences, clothes should be clean, neat and professional looking but not call attention to themselves. Trustworthiness is related to the sincerity and consisting of the counselor. The counsellor is genuinely concerned about the client and shows it over time by establishing a close relationship with the client. “There is and can be no such thing as instant intimacy” or trustworthiness. Rather, both are generated through patterns of behavior that demonstrate are and concern most clients are neither completely distrusting nor given to blind trust. But, as Fong and Cox note, many clients test the trustworthiness of the counsellor, deprecating themselves or questioning the motives and dedication the counsellor.
It is essential, therefore, that the counsellor responds to the question of trust rather than the verbal content of the client in order to facilitate the counselling relationship. Many beginning counsellors make the mistake of dealing with surface issues instead of real concerns. For example if a client asks a counsellor, “Can I feel you anything “. A novice counsellor might respond, “what do you mean by anything”? An experienced counsellor might say, it sounds as if you are uncertain about whether you can really trust me and this relationship. A good counsellor must have the knowledge of mental hygiene and the skill to interpret psychological tests. This is essential to from a correct, reliable and objective assessment of the personality of the counselee.
An important quality of a counesllor is that he like and respects himself, but he does not use the counsellee to satisfy his own needs. Every normal human being has a desire to be respected, recognized and accepted. Then the counselor must qualities of good personality, good character and wholesome philosophy, health, emotional stability, approachability, sympathic understanding of youth, intelligence, social culture, broad knowledge and interest in guidance and personal working conditions and understanding of social economic conditions. They above given qualities must be possessed by a counsellor.
1.Psychological Base of Education, Dr. A. Antony.
2.Guidance and Counselling, Indore Madhukar.
3. Guidance and Counselling, Ramanath Sharma.
Prepared by :Sr. Simimol


Counselling skills goals assumes that clients are the vast majority of ordinary people with many problems,many people function reasonably well,some not.Counsellers assist clients to help themselves.They use counselling skills to develop client’s capacity to use their human potential both now and in future.
Attending involves giving all of your physical attention to another person.The process of attending has a considerable impact on the quality of communication that goes on between two people.By attending we are saying to another person “I am interested in what you have to say”.
Attending physically
Attending cluster consists of following skills.
1) A posture of involvement
Body can be used as a tool to facilitate good communication.A relaxed awareness expressed by body posture seems best suited for fostering good communication.
Bolton ,in his book ‘people skills’ suggests
· Lean towards the speaker –communicates energy and attentiveness.
· Face the other squarely (your right shoulder to the speaker’s left) – communicates your involvement.
· Maintaining an open posture –important for fostering inter personal relatedness –closed posture(crossed arms or legs) often communicates coldness and defensiveness.
· Aware of your proximity to the speaker- personal space- when those boundaries are crossed it makes them feel uncomfortable and defensive.Also too much distance communicates aloofness and disconnectedness.
2) Appropriate Body Motion
Body motion is good but it can be over done if you are not careful.The purpose of gesturing when you are listening is to encourage the speaker to continue speaking. This can most easily be done with a periodic head nod. A good listener moves his or her body in response to the speaker.
3) Eye Contact
Good eye contact involves focussing on the speakers face and occasionally shifting the focus to other parts of the body.The key is that the other is aware that they have your attention because your eyes are on them.Good eye contact should seem natural to the other person.But don’t stare them down.This makes you seem anxious and sometimes critical of them.
4) Creating a non destructing environment
It is not possible to move the conversation into a private room or office,but every attempt should made to reduce the number of distractions that are present.
Observing means asking clients about themselves. It involves
· .Ask clients about their reasons for coming.
· Help clients decide what decisions they face.
· Help clients express their feelings,needs ,wants and any doubts ,concerns or talking.
· Keep questions open,simple and brief.
· Look at your client as u speak.
· Ask clients what they want to do.
· Listen actively to what the client says.Follow where the client leads the discussion.
· Show your interest and understanding at all times.
· Express empathy.
· Avoid judgements and opinion.
· Ask for any information needed to complete client record.
Listening Skills
Effective is actually absorbing the information given to you by the speaker, showing that you are listening and interested. Goal of listening is understanding what is trying to be communicated.
1) Door Openers
A door opener is a non coercive invitation to talk. It includes
a) Description on other person’s body language.(ie you don’t look like you are feeling well today)
b) An invitation to talk.
c) Silence .
d) Attending.
2) Infrequent Questions
This trick is to ask questions that are designed to spur the conversation on when it gets struck. This means questioning will be infrequent and not yes or no questions.
3) Attentive Silence
Silence is an opportunity for the speaker to reflect on what he or she has said and to gather their thoughts before their next statement.
This skill also includes maintaining eye contact, maintaining an interested facial expression, nodding, facing the other person, maintaining an open position, keeping a close proximity etc.
An important aspect is to help the listeners to clarify his or her communication. It involves
Reflecting skills
Reflective listening is to serve as a mirror for the person speaking. Reflecting cluster includes
1) Para phrasing
A paraphrase is a concise response to the speaker that restates the essence of communication in the listeners own words.
2) Reflecting feelings
It is mirroring back of the speaker’s emotions as they make their statements. It gives the speaker an opportunity to evaluate how he or she is responding to the problem situation.
3) Reflect meanings
If you get the feelings or the content wrong then you can’t understand the speaker. It allows you to be sure that you are getting what the speaker is saying.
4) Summative reflecting
It recap the major themes of the conversation. It helps the speaker to sort through the litter and to construct a more complete and compact conceptualization of the issue being discussed.
Probing means asking for additional information. Effective probing is non judgemental and flows from what was previously said. Good probing questions ask for elaboration, classification and repetition. It helps client to fill in missing pieces.
On teaching process also counselling skills play a great role which includes developing personal relationship with problem students, reassuring them, monitoring them closely, dealing with their problems in more sustained ways outside the class time, motivate them to talk freely, helping them to develop their insights, developing productive relationships with their parents etc. counselling skills help in attaining all the above.
1. Guidance and Counselling Skills:- Ramesh Chaturvedi.
2. Elementary Guidance and Counselling:- RashmiAgarwal.
4. 91/skills.html.


The goal of rational emotive therapy is to show the client how his misinterpretation of events are causing him problems and to teach him to see things in a more rational manner and aid him in the process of adjustments .Rational Emotive therapy was developed by Albert Ellis .According to Ellis every human being who gets disturbed really is felling himself a chain of false sentences.
Rational Emotive Therapy was developed by Albert Ellis. According to him human being is both rational and irrational.Irrationality is the cause of emotional problems, such as guilt,anxiety,anger and depression. Emotional problems cannot be separated from ideas. Ellis thinks that the mistake most people make us rating themselves.against other people and then labeling themselves.This prevents them from accepting their natural fallibility and almost always result in self contempt or in a defensive pose of superiority.
Ellis has developed his own made of behaviour which is called X, B, C model. ”A” is the activating event Vis the belief system and “C” is the emotional consequence. Here made “A” is not the cause of “C”rather W is the cause of C. According to Ellis every human being who gets disturbed really is telling himself a chain of false sentences. That is the way humans seem almost invariably to think in words, phrases and sentences and it I s these sentences which really constitute his neurosis.
1. It is absolutely essentional for an individual to be loved or approved by every significant person in his environment.
2. It is necessary that each individual be competent, adequate and achieving in areas of interest if the individual is to be worthwhile.
3. Some people are bad, wicked or villainous and these people should be blamed and punished.
4. It is terrible and catastrophic when things are not in the way an individual wants them to be.
5.Unhappiness is a function of events outside the control of the individual.
6.If something is dangerous or harmful, an individual should constantly be concerned about it.
7.It is easier to run away from difficulties and self responsibility than it is to brace oneself up to learn on.
8.Petty events in an individual‘s life determine present behaviour and cannot be changed.
9.An individual should be every concerned and upset by other individual problems.
10.There is always a correct and precise answer to every problem and it is catastrophic if it is not found.
c)The Goal
Regardless of what happened to the individual in the past,the therapist assures that the person is solely responsible for the way he feels about himself and this is responsible for his happiness. The goal of rational emotive therapy is to show the client how his misinterpretation of events is causing him problems and to teach him to see things in a more rational manner and aid him in the process of adjustments.
d)The process
In the initial interview the responsibilities of the counselor and the client are defined. The client is responsible for practicing any learning acquired during the counseling sessions. Practicing means home work.
e)Techniques Used
Rational therapists use a wide verity of techniques to correct the illogical and self –defeating goals and beliefs of the client. These include persuasion, confrontation, challenge, command, even theoretical arguments. They do not ‘baby’ their clients .He may go so far as to give ‘home work’ assignments encouraging the clients to risk arguing with their boss .patting a dog that frightens them directive.
Ellis says human being is both rational and irrational. Irrationality is the cause of emotional problems, such as guilt, anxiety, anger and depression. Ellis has identified eleven irrational ideas. The goal of rational emotive therapy is to show the client how his misinterpretation of events is causing him problems and to teach him to see things in a more rational manner and aid him in the process of adjustments.
1. Guidance and counseling in colleges and universities -S. k KOCHHAR
2. Guidance and counseling skills Rajesh Chaturvedi
3. Guidance and counseling
4. Guidance and counseling A.K NAYAK

Neuro linguistic programming

Neuro linguistic programming was co-created by John Grinder, a linguist and Richard Bandler, a Mathematician in the mid 1970’s.Neuro linguistic programming describes the fundamental dynamics between mind and language(linguistic) and how their interplay effects our body and behavior(programming).That is, the name NLP symbolizes the relation between brain language and the body.
· Neuro - understanding body and its functions
· Linguistic - communication aspects.(verbal and non verbal)
· Programming - behavioral patterns.
NLP encompasses the three most influential components involved in producing human experience: neurology, language and programming. The neurological system regulates how our bodies function, language determines how we interface and communicate with the other people and our programming determines the kinds of models of the world we create.
NLP is based on two fundamentals
1. As human beings, we can never know reality; we can only know one perception of reality. It is our Neuro linguistic map of the reality that determine how we behave and that give those behavior meaning not reality itself. It is generally not realities that limit us or empowers us, but rather our map of reality.
2. The process that take place within a human being and between human beings and their environment are systematic .Our bodies ,our societies and our universe from complex systems and subsystems all of which interact with and mutually interact influence each other. It is not possible to completely isolate any part of the system from the rest of the system.
All the models and techniques of NLP are based on the combination of these two principles, that is, it is not possible for human beings to know objectives reality-to derive a right or correct map of the world. The goal of NLP is to create the richest map possible.
The people who are more effective are the one who have a map of the world that allow them to perceive the greatest number of available choice and perspectives. NLP is a way of enriching the choices that you have and perceive as available in the world round you.
NLP is a pragmatic school of thought an epistemology that is the study of the origin and the structure of knowledge itself.
NLP provides tools and skills for the development of individual excellence, establishes a system of empowering beliefs and pre- supportions about what human beings are, what communication is and what the process of change is all about, it is about self discovery, wisdom and vision.
NLP claims to help people change by teaching them to program their brains .we are given brains, but no instruction manual. NLP offers you a user manual for the brain, which is referred to as software for the brain
NLP emphasis on teaching a variety of communication persuasion skills and using self hypothesis to motivate and change oneself. NLP is a major therapeutic tool and an instrument for a personal effectiveness and excellence. NLP can enhance all aspect of our life by improving our relationships with loved ones, learning to teach effectively, gaining a storage sense of self esteem, greater motivation, better understanding of communication, enhancing your career and an enormous amount of other things which involve your brain.
NLP proposed a number of simple techniques involving maching, pacing and leading for establishing rapport with people. There are a number of techniques explored in NLP ,that are supposed to be beneficial in building and maintaining rapport such as :maching and pacing non verbal behavior(body- posture, head position, gestures, voice tone and so forth) and maching speech and body rhythms of others(breathing, pulse and so forth).
Anchoring is the process by which a particular state on response is associated (anchored) with a unique anchor. An anchor is most often a gesture, voice tone or touch but could be any unique visual. auditory, kina esthetic, oil factory or gustatory stimulus. It is claimed that by recalling past resourceful states one can anchor those states to make them available in new situations. A psychotherapist might anchor positive states like calmness and relaxation or confidence in the treatment of phobias and anxiety such as in public speaking. Proponents state that anchors are capable of being formed and reinforced by repeated stimuli and thus are analogous to classical conditioning.
Swish is a novel visualization technique for reducing unwanted habits. The process involves disrupting a pattern of thought that usually leads to an unwanted behavior such that it leads to desired alternative. The process involves visualizing the trigger or ‘cue image’ that no normally leads to the unwanted behavior pattern, such as a smoker’s hand with a cigarette moving towards the face. The cue image is then switched a number of times with a visualization of a desired alternative, such as a self-image looking resourceful and fulfilled. The swish is tested by having the person think of the original cue image that used to lead to the undesired behavior by presenting the actual cue such as cigarette to the client, while observing the responses. If the client says resourceful then the process is complete. The name swish comes from the sound made by the practitioner /trainer as the visualizations is switched. Swish also make use of sub modalities, for example, the internal image of the unwanted behavior is typically shrunk to a small and manageable size and desired outcome is enhanced by making it brighter and larger than normal. The swish was first published by Richard Bandler.
In NLP, reframing is the process where by an element of communication is presented so as to transform an individual perception of the meanings or “frames ”attributed towards phrases and events. By changing the way the event is perceived responses and behaviors will also change. Reframing with language allows you to see the world in different way and this change the meaning. Reframing is the process of joke, myths, legends, fairy tales and most creative way of thinking.
Ecology in NLP deals with the relationship between client and his or her natural, social and created environments and how a proposed goal or change might retreat to his or her relationship and environment. It is a frame within which desired outcome is checked against the consequences ,client’s life and mind as a systematic processes. It treats the clients relationship with self as a system and his or her relationship with others as subsystems that interact .So when some one considers a change it is important therefore to take into account the consequences of the system as a whole like gestalt therapy. A goal of NLP is to help the client choose goals and make change that achieve a sense of personal congruency and integrity with personal and other aspect of the client life.
Parts Integration creates a metaphor of different aspects of ourselves which are in conflict due to different goals, perceptions and beliefs. ‘Parts integration’ is the process of identifying these parts and negotiating with each of these parts separately together, with a goal of resolving internal conflict. Parts integration appears to be modeled on ‘parts’ from family therapy and has similarities to ego-state therapy in psycho analysis in that it seeks to resolve conflicts that constitute a ‘family of self’ within a single individual
In contrast to mainstream psychotherapy, NLP does not concentrate on diagnosis, treatment and assessment of mental and behavioral disorders. Instead, it focuses on helping client to overcome their own self perceived or subjective problems. It seek to do this while respecting their own capabilities and wisdom to choose additional goals for the intervention as they learn more about their problems, and to modify and specify those goals further as a result of extended interaction with a therapist. The two main therapeutic use of NLP are , use as an adjunct by therapists practicing in other therapeutic
disciplines, or as a specific therapy called Neuro-linguistic psychotherapy(NLP).
While, the main goals of Neuro-linguistic programming are therapeutic, the patterns have also been adapted for use outside of psychotherapy including business communication, management training, sales, sports and interpersonal influence.
NLP claims to help people change by teaching them to program their brains.
1. Educational psychology :Dr. K. Sivarajan


a) Introduction
Counselling is a relationship between two persons which includes providing the assistance to an immature person regarding defining his problem, to think about him and to develop some habits and attitudes for intelligent decision making. The aim of counseling is to help a person in dealing with developmental tasks fit for his age-group.
b) Transactional Analysis
Transactional analysis defined by Eric Berne is a theory of personality and social action and a clinical method of psychotherapy based on the analysis of all possible transaction between two or more people on the basis of specially defined ego states. Transactional analysis is useful to any person who wants to be a real person. A real person is one who acts spontaneously in a rational and trust worthy way with decent consideration for others. Real people are autonomous.
The salient feature at transactional analysis is that it basically views people as products of relationship and their behavior as the functions of the past interactional fearing experience. It holds the view that people are responsible for what they do. If a man understands what is wrong with him and has enough motivation he can become a winner. It is usually practiced in groups.
v People can be autonomous
v They are not enslaved by their past
v Change is an autonomous process
v Autonomous people are real people and they have the qualities like awareness, spontaneity and intimacy.
d)Theory of Personality
TA is a dynamic theory at personality in the sense that uses the concepts of psychic energy and the distribution of energy. The structure of personality is based on the personality theory of parent, adult, child ego states. He defines the ego states on the patterns of feeling, thinking and behaving. Any individual in a social grouping will exhibit one of these states.
Parent ego state
It refers to the parental and cultural influences. The person behaves like one of his parents/elders when he was young. This is a set of feelings, thoughts, attitudes and behaviors which one came across during his childhood. It contains behaviors that are copied stored information, Opinions, judgment and inner influence.
Parental ego states are in two forms. They are controlling parent and Nurturing parent.
Adult ego state
Adult ego state keeps us from being ‘hijacked’ by emotions and traumatic experiences of yester years. It helps us to make use of our mental and physical capabilities to meet the challenges that we face day after day. It discards unrealistic inappropriate messages and feelings and makes his own decisions. The important characteristics are organization, intelligence, processing, probability and decision making. It is devoid of feelings.
Child ego state
It contains all the feelings, needs potentialities of a child. Berne says we all carry within ourselves a little boy or a little girl who feels, thinks, acts and responds just as we did when we were children. It also contains creative intuitive capacities such as rebellion, compliance etc. TA has identified three different forms of child ego state they are
1. Natural child
2. Adaptive child
3. Little professor
e) Four type of analysis of TA
1. Structural analysis
2. Transactional analysis
3. Games
4. Script
1. Structural analysis
It is the first stage of counselling. It is the analysis of the Structure of the personality. It diagnoses and separates feelings, patterns and ego states from one another. It helps people to understand who they are, why they behave so. It helps the person to remain in control of the personality in stressful situation.
2. Transactional analysis
This is the second stage of the counselling. It helps the client to understand the three distinct types of transactions. They are complementary, crossed and ulterior. They are more analyzing the on-going transactions of group members.
3. Complementary Transaction
It occurs when the stimulus given by one person gets the expected response from another person.
4.Crossed Transaction
This happens between two ego states when a message sent from one person gets the unexpected response. The lines between the two ego states cross and communication breaks down.
5. Ulterior Transaction
It involves more than two ego states at the same time. In this type of transaction two messages are exchanged one in the social level and one in psychological level. There are two types of ulterior transaction. They are Duplex transaction and Angular ulterior transaction.
3. Games
A game is an on-going series of transactions seemingly complementary, covertly ulterior which leads to a well defined pay off. Pay off are usually negative feelings like fear, anger, sadness for one or both the players. Game is defined as a series of complementary transactions, progressing to a well defined predictable outcome. Most of what happens in life is game. The client is encouraged to learn more satisfying ways of structuring time and acquiring strokes.
4. Scripts
Script analysis is the analysis of life dramas that people without awareness act out compulsively some of the impressions which get imprinted in the earlier experiences will influence our behavior. It is a tool of TA. It tells us how we got the impression and how we can get rid of it scripts are two
1) Winning script 2) Losing script
Dr Berne defines script as a life plan based on decision in childhood, reinforced by parents.
Transactional analysis counselling process
The success of TA treatment largely depends on the setting of the room where there is held. The furniture, the color of the curtains and walls, the dress of the therapist all constitute the setting.
In the initial interview, the therapist very carefully tries to assess the ego state; the client seems to be in. From which the therapist draws certain conclusions. TA interview records are kept for future references. Brief notes on summary of the interview are recorded in standard forms. With the client complaints, his life position, symptoms, ego states, childhood experiences etc.
Contract theory and techniques- the establishment and completeness of contracts is one of the important TA techniques that can be used for effective therapy. A contract is the bilateral agreement between the therapist and the client.
The first stage of TA relationship is meeting the confused client with the parent. The counsellor seeks the information to establish a contractual relationship.
In the second stage, the counsellor explains the client’s behavior using the information obtained in the first stage. The counsellor make client aware of the internal conflicts and explore.
The third stage is marked by confrontation make him aware of the contamination of the other ego states and make him break the contamination and elicit a commitment to some action. The client is self conditioned.
It frees people from their foggy feeling and behavior and helps in improving the communication process. It is used for everyday problem solving.
Transactional Analysis can be said to be an effective method in the process of counselling. Recently its scope is increasing. Individuals especially the young adults are the needy clients of this transactional analysis counselling, because present generations carry different complex ego states. It enable the clients to identity the sorts of relationship.
1) Sivarajan K, Psychological foundations of education, Calicut University,
Calicut, 2005.
2) Nayak A. K, Guidance and counselling, APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 2004.
3) Srivasthava K. K, Principles of guidance and counselling, kanishka, New Delhi, 2003.
4) Shashi prabha Sharma, career guidance and counselling, kanishka, New Delhi, 2005.

Gestalt Therapy

Gestalt Therapy has developed into a form of therapy that emphasizes medium to large groups, although many Gestalt techniques can be used in one-on-one therapy. Gestalt Therapy probably has a great range of format than any other therapy techniques. It is practiced in individual, couples, and family therapies, as well as in therapy with children.
Ideally, the patient identifies the current sensation and emotions, particularly ones that are painful or disruptive. Patients are confronted with their unconscious feelings and needs and are assisted to accept and assert those repressed parts of themselves.
Gestalt comes from the German meaning “an organized whole”. Frederick Perls was the first person to formulate application of Gestalt psychology in the area of psychotherapy. Gestalt Therapy rose from its beginning in the middle of the twentieth century to rapid and wide spread popularity during the decades of the 1960s and early 1970s. During the 70s and 80s Gestalt Therapy training centers spread globally, but they were, for the most part, not aligned with formal academic settings. Later Gestalt Therapy became an applied discipline in the field of psychotherapy, organizational development, social action and eventually coaching.
Gestalt Therapy was co-founded by Frederick Perls, Launa Perls and Paul Goodman in the 1940s.It is an existential and experimental psychotherapy that focuses on the individuals experience in the present moment, the therapist-client relationship, the environmental and social context in which these take place, and the self-regulating adjustment people make us a result of the overall situation. It emphasizes personal responsibility.
Gestalt Therapy focuses more on process (what is happening) than content (what is being discussed). The emphasis is on what is being done, though and felt at the moment rather than on what was, might be, could be or should be.
Gestalt Therapy is a method of awareness by which perceiving, feeling and acting are understood to be separate from interpreting, explaining and judging using old attitudes. Distinction between direct experience and indirect or secondary interpretation is developed in the process of therapy. The client learns to become aware of what they are doing psychologically and how they can change it. By becoming aware of transforming their process they develop self acceptance and the ability to experience more in the “now” without so much interference from baggage of the past.
The objective of Gestalt Therapy, in addition to helping the client to overcome symptoms, is to enable him or her to become more fully and creatively alive and to be free from the blocks and unfinished issues that may diminish optimum satisfaction, fulfillment and growth. Thus, it falls in the category of humanistic psychotherapies.
Edwin Nevis describes Gestalt Therapy as “a conceptual and methodological base from which helping professionals can craft their practice”. Joel Latner asserted that Gestalt Therapy is built around two central ideas: that the most helpful focus of psychology is the experiential present moment and that everyone is caught in webs of relationships; thus it is only possible to know ourselves against the background of our relation to other things. The historical development of Gestalt Therapy shows the influences that have resulted in these two foci. Expanded, they resulted in the four chief theoretical constructs that comprise Gestalt Theory and guide the practice and application of Gestalt Therapy.
A)Present-Centered Awareness:-
Gestalt Therapy focuses on the present. Living in the present is the more central than dwelling in the past or imagining a future discovered from present. Described by its founder Frederick .S. Perls, as the therapy of the obvious, it starts from what is in front of us , the surface and examines a persons experience, staying with what is present and aware in the here and now , looking for the totality of the awareness, and including what is being left out.
B)Profound Respect:-
Gestalt Therapy approaches the person who has come to therapy. Whether, it is an individual, a couple, family or an institution in a deeply respectful manner. This greatly influences the therapist’s attitude towards change and resistance to change.
C)Emphasis on Experience:-
A person’s experience is more than just ideas and memories, though they are certainly important. Experience also includes emotions, perceptions, behavior and body sensation. Therapy aims to support all of these experiences in the vivid present.
D)Creative Experiment and Discovery:-
Therapy’s experimental methodology requires that therapists constantly test their hunches against the client’s experience and modify them accordingly. The therapist is both highly creative and flexible, while concentrating on the client’s process.
E)Social Responsibility:-
Gestalt Therapy acknowledges responsibility for oneself and for others and its principles extend into the border social realm. In asking for respect for all people and for the difference among them, it reflects a humanistic, egalitarian approach to social life encourage people to live out these principles in the community at large.
Being involved with others is central to human experience, and so it is it in Gestalt Therapy. One becomes fully alive when one is congruent with oneself and fully aware with oneself and involved with others, vigorously and directly, with intimacy and love. These also characterize the therapeutic relationship in Gestalt Therapy.
Lacking a distinct clearly defined and fully elaborates theory of human development.
Lack of advanced research in the field.
It is a philosophical underpinnings.
In compatible with are empirical research.
It is powerful mean for facilitate and nurturing the functioning of human feelings.
At the end of the therapy the client is not necessarily ‘cured’ but able to access tools and equipments to deal with problems encountered.
Gestalt Therapy is a humanistic therapy technique that focuses on gaining an awareness of emotions and behaviors in the present rather than in the past.
1.Guidance and Counseling
2.Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the human personality
-Frederick Perls, Paul Goodman.
3.Gestalt Therapy Verbatim
-Frederick. S. Perls.
4.Ego, Hunger and Aggression
-Frederick. S. Perls.


Education should be organized in view of the psychology students. Educational courses and opportunities are provided according to the abilities scholastic aptitude for optimum development of students. In counseling include so many theories. Behaviorist theory is more importance in counseling. Counseling theory cannot delink from theories of learning as the goal of counseling happens to be to modify the counselee’s behavior. The two theories in common practice today;
1. The S-R Theory
2. The Perceptual Theory
b)The S-R Theory
The S-R theory says that behaviors of the people is the result of the forces existed upon them, that is a direct out growth of the stimuli to which people are subjected, outgrowth of forces that operate upon them at a particular time. If this is the case, then counseling, that is modification of behavior in a matter of the manipulation of the forces exerted upon people. Behavioral therapy is the method of counseling human behavior.
Skinner’s theory runs like this: “ It a tasty bit of food falls into a skinner box after a pigeon pocks a button or a rat presses a bar, the pigeon or the rat is likely to pock or press again behavior is affected by its consequences”. Reinforcement in changing the behavior of persons who suffered from various behavioral disturbances as single individuals and also as small groups. This was a very significant achievement in the field of behavioral modification.
Behavior therapy, as described by Good all was a “mid century out growth of classical conditioning experimentation and learning theories of Clark Hull, the psychologist”. “Predominantly one to one, therapist-client relationship; scheduled sessions in the therapists’ office or clinic, fees paid by clients”. Behavior therapy assumes that a behavior or emotion this interferes with effective living is not necessarily the result of some inner problem that has to be worked out in therapy. Proximations to approach in behavior therapy is that of shaping approximation to appropriate responding through careful schedules of reinforcement. This is used to when responses are needed but they are not present.
Thousands of parents have learned to use ABA through short term work shops and courses. They use for this purpose all kinds of methods and techniques such as tokens, shaping, modeling, desensitization’s or any other behavioral technique which may be found effective in practice. The ABA therapists claim a big success in changing a man.
c)Behavioral Therapy of Joseph Wolpe
Pavlov’s theory influenced to Wolpe. He develops the Behavioral therapy. He used anxiety as his core concept. If something makes a person anxious while meeting other persons, the feeling of meeting others gets attached to feeling of anxiety which he tries to avoid and, in course of time, develops ‘shyness’ or ‘reservedness’ or ‘feeling of inferiority’. Hence he argues, the approach to are should be to reintroduce the person, gradually to the thought of being anxious while meeting others. To achieve this person is brought to counseling interview through which he is first made to give a detailed account of everything related to the problem.
Wolpe suggested the use of assertive training in case of highly unexpressive persons that is persons who would express their emotions even though suffering from great anxiety. He also suggested the use of aversive therapy in which case some unpleasant sensation is induced in the person every time he indulges in undesirable behavior.
d)Dallard and Milles’s Behavioral Psychoanalysis
“Man is essentially a product of learning, particularly emphasizing the principle of reinforcement.”
Thus method of counseling and therapy runs as follows:
1. Talking phase
2. Performance phase
1. Talking phase
During this phase efforts are made to examine, identify and analyze the undesirable habit pattern of behaviors by talking to the person as much as possible.
2. Performance phase
During which efforts are made to make the client learn desirable behaviors by making them more rewarding.
e)Perceptual Theories of Learning
Perceptual theories of learning assert that human behavior is a product of perception. According to perceptual theorists learning is not simply a matter of motivation, repetitions, presentation, stimulation, conditioning etc… although all these play their roles in the process of learning. A piece of information affects human behavior to the extent to which the individual discovers its personal meaning.
Seven factors on which an individual’s perception depends for discovery of meaning. These are as follows:
1. Physical nature of human organism
2. Length of time he has lived
3. The opportunities he has had in the past to perceive
4. The goals and values the individual holds. People perceive what they value.
5. The operation of his current needs. People perceive what they need to perceive.
6. The Self-Concept
7. The experience of threat. Thereat his dress in perception.
f)Behavior Therapy
Aimed at modification of maladaptive outward behavior. Based on the learning theories of psychology and depends on the principle that learned behavior can be unlearned.
These psychological methods are most important and effective tools available for the treatment of psychoneuroses personality disorders, drugs addictions and alcoholism and behavior disturbances of child hood. They are also useful as supportive ancillary methods are the treatment of psychoses and psychosomatic diseases.
1. Therapeutic Counseling
- Dr. B.J. Prashanthan
2. Fundamentals of Guidance and Counseling
- R.A. Sharma