In this type of approach the counselor plays an important role .A major goal is to replace the emotional behavior of the individual with deliberately rationale behavior .Although he avoids dictatorial advice .This approach is also known as counselor-centered. Under this process the counselor plans the counseling process, his work is to analyze the problem, identify the triggers identify the exact nature of the problem and provide various options.
Williamson was a great profounder of this kind of approach as he stated that this approach is good to address the problems relating to educational and vocational adjustment.This type of counseling is a concept,where educational and vocational guidance relate to the personality dynamics and interpersonal relationship.This type pf counseling is more useful where the individual wants information and advice for choice of a career.This approach does not focus its attention on personality development as such.
Steps of Directive counseling:-
Williamson has given six steps Directive counseling:
1)Analysis :It includes collection of information about the individual which can be collected through structured interviews,psychological case history methods, Interaction with family members, friends, etc.
2) Synthesis: After collection of lot data the information is organized in the logical manner to analyse the individual in terms of his qualifications, assets, potentials, liability adjustment, cultural background, habits etc.
3) Diagnosis :The diagnosis consists of the interpretation of the data in relation to the nature and problem, the causes of problems.
4)Prognosis: Under this step a prediction is made about the future development of the problem.
5)Counseling : The counseling here is to bring about adjustment and re-adjustment to the individual in relation to his problem. Attitudes and interest of the individual are considered during the counseling.It emphasis the individual to develop life cycle where an effort in the positive direction could lead to success and success in turn could lead to further efforts and motivations.
6)Follow -up :The sixth step in directive counseling is follow up which is extremely important. An individual may be able to solve immediate problems through counseling but new problems may occur or the original problem may re-occur. Follow-up with the client is extremely necessary. The role of counselor is important as he has to make the individual understand and accept his strength and also his weakness and faults.
That technique is considered as a most economic approach and important for student counseling because it is less time consuming and student who lack experience are easily influenced by the counselor’s experience and specialize knowledge. The students feel that the counselor has superior Knowledge and therefore a professional relation takes place. The relation is the base of this kind of approach. A submissive and highly emotionalized counseling of student can cultivate self-confidence in the individual. A relationship is based on dignity to help the student to reach his goal.
Directive or Counselor-centered or prescriptive counseling: Counselor-centered counseling revolves around the counselor. He tries to lit good relations to the friendship and assistance. In this, the counselor is active and he expresses his ideas and attitudes independently. He evaluates expressions of the client. According to this view point the counseling interview .In this, the counselor asks a series of standardized questions. Each carries a short answer. The counselor does not allow the development of expression and feelings. He leads as an expert, evaluates and gives suggestion vice.
I Basic Assumptions of Directive Counseling :
According to Willy, the following can be the basic assumptions of directive counseling-
a) Competency in giving Advice-: The counselor posses the best training experience and information. He is more competent to provide an advice to problem.
b) Counseling as an intellectual process -: An client’s intellectual is not destroyed as a result of mal-adjustment. Hence counseling is primarily an intellectual process .It stresses upon the intellectual aspects of a person instead of emotional aspects of the personality.
c) Counseling objectives as problem solving situation-: The objective counseling are achieved through problem solving situation.
d) Client’s incapability of solving the process-: The counselor does not posses the capability for solving the problem always.
Advantages of Directive counseling:
1) This method is useful from the time consuming view- point .It saves time.
2) In this type of counseling, there is more focus on the problem and the person.
3) The counselor can look the client directly.
4) Counseling focuses more on the intellectual aspects of the person than emotional aspect of the personality.
5)In this process, the counselor becomes readily available to help which makes the client very happy.
Limitations of Directive counseling-:
1) In this process the client is more dependent. He is also less able to solve new problems of adjustment.
2) As the client is never independent of the counselor, it is not an efficient best guidance.
3) Unless and until a person does not develop some attitude through experiences, he cannot make any decision himself.
4) The counselor fails in serving the client to commit the mistakes in future
As the client was in need of some information regarding his vocation, counselor provided that to the best of his knowledge. He wanted to select a direction and the counselor helped him in choosing that the counselor gave some alternatives in the same line so that the client may be able to select avocation according to his choice and can choose a career if he is not able to go for IIT.
During counseling, the counselor tried to explore the reason for his choice of vocation, like why is he motivated towards this job? Is his selection worthy and genuine?
1) Elementary Guidance and counseling
2) Guidance and counseling
3) Guidance and counseling skills
-Ramesh Chathurvedi ]