CLIENT CENTERED COUNSELING
This is also known as phenomenological approach to counseling or therapy. Kant described to different aspects of the world. The phenomena would plan thing which are independent of our senses and hence unknown and phenomena which means knowledge of things gained by our senses. Carl Rogers’s phenomenal field of this individual meant the totality of his own experiences. His theory is also called self theory since he places greater emphasis on getting to know oneself as much as possible the self being conscious part of the phenomenal field and the self concept being a series of hypothesis one has about oneself, right or wrong. The nucleus of his theory is his concept of self. He also assumed that h\the human being is an organism, the total individual.
A few salient features of his personality theory are:
1) The individual is an organized whole and self actualization is his basic aim of life which is achieved only through his interaction with the environment as experienced and perceived by him.
2) The totality of experiences at a given time of which he is aware constitutes his phenomenal field that part of this field which the individual experienced as part of him self is his phenomenal self.
3) The most important and consistent self perceptions organize themselves in to a pattern that is self concise.
4) Most of the behaviors of the individual conform to the concept of self personality development Rogers’s means congruence between the phenomenal field and the concept of self resulting in to a balanced personality free from stress and anxiety.
5) The incongruence may lead to anxiety depression and threat.
Rogers’s approach to counseling first known as non-directive counseling and later called client centered therapy is found on certain assumption about the nature of human being.
Techniques and Characteristics of Counseling
The counseling technique of the client centered therapy aims at releasing individual’s potential and capacities of self actualization and self-development through the counseling interviews. It aims at helping the counselee grow, learn to solve his problems at his own and be a self-reliant being capable of facing life problems. It aims at bringing about an internal evaluation with in the counselee.
An important factor in non-directive counseling is the behavior of the counselor. The role of the counselor is that of a sympathetic and interested listener who passes no value judgments. He simply reflects back and relates in his own words the statements of the client, clarifies them only with out approving or disapproving them. Counselee relationship is of paramount importance. The counselor is required in this relationship to show warmth of feeling and understanding coupled with a non-evaluating attitude the counselor remains highly permissive, accepting the counselee neither probing nor interpreting nor showing any personal relation to what the counselee says. Internal change in the counselee is regarded a function of this permissive relationship.
He does not distort what happens between himself and his client. He always considers the client of great value irrespective of his faults and short comings. He is empathetic towards his client capable of accurately perceiving what the client things or feels.
Verbal behavior here is taken as data and one looks for what the person is “saying” beyond or behind the words he uses. Such sessions are carried on over periods of many hours and through overall workshops lasting for several days or a week or more. The groups eventually over come to discuss very basic feelings of one participant towards another and become more sensitive to the possible meanings statements that seem unit devoid of emotional content to the untrained.
Fundamental Principles of Guidance and Counseling