Monday, February 28, 2011

Couseling at High School

Couseling at High School
1. S.Narayana Rao- Counselling and Guidance,Second edition, (1997)Tata McGraw –Hill Publishing Company Limited.NewDelhi. Page No. 205 – 206
2. Guidence and counseling by S. NageswaraRao, Murugudu Sree Hari, Digumarti Bhaskara Rao (2004), Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi (Page No. 82 – 85)

Aims and Objectives of Counseling

Aims and Objectives of Counseling
Counseling aims at helping the clients understand and accept themselves “as they are”, And counseling is to help the student to help himself.
The main objective of counseling is to bring about a voluntary change in the client. For this purpose the counselor provides facilities to help achieve the desird change or make the suitable choice.
According to Dunsmoor and miller, the purpose of student counseling are :-
1. To give the student information on matters important to success.
2. To get information about student which will be of help in solving his problems.
3. To establish a feeling of mutual understanding between student and teacher.
4. To help the student work out a plan for solving his difficulties.
5. To help the student know himself better-his interests, abilities, aptitudes, and oppurtunities.
6. To encourage and develop special abilities and right attitudes.
7. To inspire successful endeavor toward attainment.
8. To assist the student in planning for educational and vocational choices.
Counseling Goals
The goal of counseling is to help individuals overcome their immediate problems and also to equip them to meet future problems. Counseling, to be meaningful has to be specific for each client since it involves his unique problems and expectations. The goals of counseling may be described as immediate, long-range, and process goals. A statement of goals is not only important but also necessary, for it provides a sense of direction and purpose. Additionally it is necessary for a meaningful evaluation of the usefulness of it.
The counselor has the goal of understanding the behavior, motivations, and feelings of the counselee. The counselor has the goals are not limited to understanding his clients. He has different goals at different levels of functioning. The immediate goal is to obtain relief for the client and the long-range goal is to make him ‘a fully functioning person’. Both the immediate and long- term goals are secured through what are known as mediate or process goals.
Specific counseling goals are unique to each client and involve a consideration of the client’s expectations as well as the environmental aspects. Apart from the specific goals, there are two categories of goals which are common to most counseling situations. These are identified as long-range and process goals. The latter have great significance. They shape the counselee and counselors’ interrelations and behavior. The process goals comprise facilitating procedures for enhancing the effectiveness of counseling. The long range –goals are those that reflect the counselor’s philosophy of life and could be stated as
1. To help the counselee become self-actualizing.
2. To help the counselee attain self-realization.
3. To help the counselee become a fully –functioning person.
The immediate goals of counseling refer to the problems for which the client is seeking solutions here and now. The counselee could be helped to gain fuller self- understanding through self – exploration and to appreciate his strengths and weaknesses. The counselor could provide necessary information but however exhaustive, may not be useful to the client unless he has an integrative understanding of himself vis-a-vis his personal resources and environmental constraints and resources.
There is an inter relation between the long-range and immediate goals as both depend on the process goals for their realization. The process goals are the basic counseling dimensions which are essential conditions for counseling to take place. They comprise empathic understanding, warmth and friendliness which provide for inter personal exploration which in turn helps the client in his self-exploration and self-understanding and eventually lead to the long range goals namely self-actualization, self- realization and self enhancement.
Discussing the goals of counseling, Parloff (1961) distinguishes between immediate and ultimate goals according to him the former refers to the steps and stages in the counseling process which lead to the realization of the ultimate goals. Patterson (1970) suggests a third level of goals namely intermediate goals in addition to mediating and ultimate goals. Ultimate goals refer to the broad and general long term outcomes like positive mental health. Intermediate goals are explained by the reasons for seeking a counselor’s help and immediate goals as those that refer to the present intentions of the counselee. A major criticism leveled is that goals such as self- actualization, actualizing potentialities, etc., are too general and amorphous and hence not useful in actual practice. Krumboltz (1966) holds that an operational definition of terms would be a more useful approach. He suggests that a general concept could be reduced to specific objective and measurable variables. Mediate goals (Parloff, 1967) may be considered as specific steps contributing to the realization of general goals. Behaviorists play much emphasis on mediate goals like reduction of anxiety, acquisition of adaptive habits, etc. The immediate goal of counseling is to motivate a potential counseling to make an appointment with a counselor and go through the counseling process till the mediate goals are realized. It is through the realization of mediate goals that the ultimate goals of self – understanding, self – realization and self – actualization can be reached. The process of self – exploration is perhaps a kind of immediate goal which sets the counseling process in motion. Areas in which change is considered desirable are relations with other individuals, academic achievement, job satisfaction, etc. Some of the major goals of counseling generally accepted by the counselors are given below:-
1. Achievement of positive mental health
It is identified as an important goal of counseling by some individuals who claim that when one reaches positive mental health one learns to adjust and response more positively to people and situations. Kell and Mueller (1962) hold that the “promotion and development of feelings of being liked, sharing with, and receiving and giving interaction rewards from other human beings is the legitimate goal of counseling”
2. Resolution of Problems
Another goal of counseling is the resolving of the problem brought to the counselor. This, in essence, is an outcome of the former goal and implies positive mental health. In behavioral terms three categories of behavioral goals can be identified, namely, altering maladaptive behavior, learning the decision – making process and preventing problems (Krumboltz, 1966).

3. Improving Personal Effectiveness

Yet another goal of counseling is that of improving personal effectiveness. This is closely related to the preservation of good mental health and securing desirable behavioral change(s).

4. Counseling to Help Change
Blocher (1966) adds two other goals. The first, according to him, is that counseling should maximize individual freedom to choose and act within the conditions imposed by the environment. The other goal is that counseling should increase the effectiveness of the individual responses evolved by the environment. Tiedeman (1964) holds that the goal of counseling is to focus on the mechanism of change and that the counselee should be helped in the process of ‘becoming’ – the change which pervades the period of adolescence through early adulthood during which the individual is assisted to actualize his potential. Shoben (1965) also views the goal of counseling as personal development.
5. Decision – Making as a Goal of Counseling
Some counselors hold the view that counseling should enable the counselee to make decisions. It is through the process of making critical decisions that personal growth is fostered. Reaves and Reaves (1965) point out that “the primary objective of counseling is that of stimulating the individuals to evaluate, make, accept and act upon his choice”.
Sometimes the counselees have goals which are vague and their implications are not fully appreciated. It is perhaps one of the primary functions of a counselor to help clarify a counselee’s goal.
6. Modification of Behavior as a Goal
Behaviorally-oriented counselors stress the need for modification of behavior, for example, removal of undesirable behavior or action or reduction of an irritating symptom such that the individual attains satisfaction and effectiveness. Growth-oriented counselors stress on the development of potentialities within the individual. Existentially-oriented counselors stress self-enhancement and self-fulfillment. Obviously the latter cannot be realize without first securing the former, namely, symptom removal or reduction as a necessary pre-condition for personal effectiveness.

The general public tends to view counseling as a remedial function and emphasizes immediate goals, such as problem resolution, tension reduction, and the like. Counselee may refer to the resolution of a particular conflict or problem situation. However, the goals of counseling are appropriately concerned with such fundamental and basic aspects such as self-understanding and self-actualization. These help provide the counselee with self-direction and self-motivation. Counseling in its spirit and essence is generative. It aims at assisting the individual to develop such that he becomes psychologically mature and is capable of realizing his potentialities optimally.
Counseling has no magical solutions. The only meaningful, sensible and realistic view of counseling is that it is not and cannot be everything to everybody. It is concerned with helping individuals find realistic and workable solutions to their problems by helping them gain an insight into themselves so that they are able to utilize their own potentialities and opportunities and thus become self-sufficient, self-directed and self-actualized.
1. S.Narayana Rao- Counselling and Guidance,Second edition, (1997)Tata McGraw –Hill Publishing Company Limited.NewDelhi.(Pg:63-68)

Need for Guidance and Counseling

Need for Guidance and Counselling
The student life is getting complex day by day . Guidance is needed to help the students for optimum achievement and adequate adjustment in the varied life situations. Need analysis of the students in the schools shows the need of Guidance and counseling services , in the education, profession, vocation, social, health, moral, personal, and marital areas.
Guidance and counseling programme needs to be introduced in our colleges and universities to meet the varied needs of the educational system, administration, and students.
1) to help in the total development of the student
Guidance and counseling helps the students to have a bettervself understanding and proper adjustment to self and society. Developing of proper motivation and clarification of goals and ideas to pupils in conformity with their basic potentialities and social tendencies are important. Total development of the student necessitates that individual differences amoung them are expected, accepted, understood, and planned for. And all types of experiences in an institution are to be so organized as to contribute to the total development of the student.
2) To help in the proper choices of courses
3) To help in the proper choice of careers
4) To help the students in vocational development
5) To develop readiness for choices and changes to face new challenges
6) To minimize the mismatching between education and employment and help in the efficient ue of manpower.
7) To motivate the youth for self employment
8) To help freshers establish proper identity
Guidence and counseling service is needed to help students deal effectively with the ormal developmental tasks of adolescence and face life situations boldly.
9) To identify and motivate the students from weaker sections of society.
10) To help the students in their period of turmoil and confusion
11) To help in checking wastage and stagnation
12) To identify and help students in need of special help.
There are such students as the gifted , the backward , the handicapped who need special opportunities . They need special attention and opportunities .
13) To ensure the proper utilization of time spent outside the classrooms.
The manner in which students spend their non-class hours clearly affects their success in achieving both academic competence and and personal development of al types.A positive direction to students should be provided by influencing how they can use those non-class hours.
14) To help in tackling problems arising out of students population explosion
15) To check migration to prevent brain drain
16) To make up for the deficiencies of home.
17) To minimize the incidence of indiscipline.
Majority of the students lack a sense of direction, a sense of purpose and a sense of fulfillment. And indulge in destructive activities, which lead to social damage and loss. Adequate guidance and counseling facilities is the only answer to help and guide the youth to worthwhile channels and help them realize the goals of optimum academic, personal and social development.
Contemporary society needs and trends
Problems and needs in society are nothing new , but today they seem to be proliferating at an unprecedented rate. The unique problems in the changing famly, cities in upheaval, conflicts in values, attitudes, and moral, the new cynicism about politics, economic factors, the changing role of work , new pressure and demands on school, and problems of the youth, all points out the need for the counseling services Guidance and counselling have a challenging role to play in every developing economy, much more so if it is a labour surplus one.
-1)A.K. Nayak: Guidance and Counselling ,(1997)APHPublishing Corporation.

Unit Three Counselling (Unit PLan)

Unit summary
3.1 Meaning , Need, aims and objectives of counseling , Significance of counseling at the secondary level. Types of counseling, Directive, non-directive (client centered) and Eclectic.
3.2 Models of Counselling .Meaning-categories of models(brief description only);1)model emphasizing action (behaviourist school) 2)model emphasizing exploration and understanding (Freud , Rogers, Transactional analysis, Gestalt Therapy).
3.3 Transactional analysis (Eric,Berne) meaning –background-Egostates-Types of transaction-Games-Scripts-Psychological positions.
3.4 Neuro-Linguistic programming(NLP,Richard Bandler &John Grinder)
Content Questions
1. Enumerate various definitions of Counselling.
2. What is counseling? State the objectives of counseling. Explain the significance of counseling at the secondary level.
3. Explain the role of teachers in counseling.
4. In what situation counseling is required?
5. What are the elements of counseling?
6. Differentiate between guidance and counseling.
7. Differentiate between counseling and psychotherapy.
8. What are the needs and requirements of students which require counseling?
9.What is directive counseling?
10.What are the main feature of directive counseling?
11. What are the steps involved in directive counseling?
12.What are the merits and demerits of directive counseling?
13.Differentiate between directive and non-directive counseling.
14.What do you mean by eclectic counseling?
15.Briefly explain different types of counseling models.
16.What is client centred therapy?
17.Explain humanistic approach to counseling.
18.Enumerate the characteristics of behaviouristic approach to counseling.
19. Explain psycho-analytic approach to counseling
20.What is TA (transactional Analysis)?
21. Write short notes on a) Types of analysis in TA b) Script c)Life positions d) merits and demerits of TA e) T A process f) Mechanism of TA psychotherapy.
21.Describe Neuro-Linguistic Programming.
22.Explan Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy.
23. Explain the major techniques of NLP.
24. Write short notes on –a) swish b)rapport c)Anchoring d)reframing e)ecology and congruency f) parts integration g) Uses of NLP.
Appropriate time needed - 20 hrs.

Welcome to Guidance and Counselling Class

Complementary elective :EDU 706.15
Unit summary
3.1 Meaning , Need, aims and objectives of counseling , Significance of counseling at the secondary level. Types of counseling, Directive, non-directive (client centered) and Eclectic.
3.2 Models of Counselling .Meaning-categories of models(brief description only);1)model emphasizing action (behaviourist school) 2)model emphasizing exploration and understanding (Freud , Rogers, Transactional analysis, Gestalt Therapy).
3.3 Transactional analysis (Eric,Berne) meaning –background-Egostates-Types of transaction-Games-Scripts-Psychological positions.
3.4 Neuro-Linguistic programming(NLP,Richard Bandler &John Grinder)
Unit summary
4.1.Stages in counseling:1)Beginning(Establishing rapport, gaining trust, defining needs, deciding roles, and limits ) 2)Counseling (attending, integrative understanding , facilitating action)3)End( terminating counseling relationship)
4.2Counselling skills: Attending skills, (attending physically, observing , listening)-Responding skills (probing, reflecting, etc, -Skill of personalizing (go beyond what the client has)-initiating skills(facilitating development)
4.3Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy
4.4-Qualities of a counselor-(well adjusted personality, self understanding , sincere interest in others, empathy, confidentiality , availability etc.)
Unit summary
1.problems and behavior disorders of children and adolescents
2.counselling children with special needs
3.counselling process-(types )
Crisis counselling
Preventive counselling
Facilitative counselling
4. Individual and group counselling
Family and marriage counselling